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Aerobatic Competition: Aresti Symbols

2002 Primary Known

2002 Sportsman Known

2002 Intermediate Known

2002 Advanced Known

2002 Unlimited Known
These symbols are used to represent the aerobatic maneuvers, or "figures," officially recognized by the Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI). The entire list of figures is shown in the current "Aerobatic Catalogue," originally adopted in 1987.
Credit is given in that publication to the "valuable suggestions and improvements proposed by Sr. Jose L. Aresti of Spain and Mr. Eric Muller of Switzerland."
Aerobatic competitors fly three "sequences" at each contest. The first, called the "known," is a combination of maneuvers chosen at the start of each year and thereafter flown by every pilot at every contest.
The next, the "free," is a sequence unique to each competitor. Here pilots have the option of choosing maneuvers and combinations best suited to their individual skills.
The last, the "unknown," is handed to competitors half-way through the contest. Practice at this point is prohibited, and pilots are faced with the necessity of flying a brand new combination of figures without rehearsal.

A brief primer on the basics of Aresti notation is given below. For a more detailed insight, see the graphics accompanying each individual maneuver listed on the aerobatic courses page.

A small circle at one end of a figure indicates the maneuver starting point.
A short vertical line at the other end of the figure indicates the maneuver end point.
Horizontal segments represent level flight paths (flown left to right in this example).
Vertical segments indicate vertical flight paths.
The corners are intended to be flown as 1/4 loops, not right angles.
Segments angled 45° indicate flight at a 45° angle from the vertical.
Dashes used to draw lines indicate inverted flight (negative G).
Circles (and portions of circles) indicate loops (and loop portions).
Short arcs (approx. 180°) drawn to intersect lines indicate full rolls.
Portions of arcs (approx. 90°) drawn on one side of a line indicate portions of rolls. As drawn, the figure depicts a 1/2 roll performed in horizontal flight.
Fractional notations next to roll symbols indicate roll portions greater or smaller than 1/2. As drawn, the figure depicts a quarter roll flown on a vertical up-line.
Right triangles indicate spins.
Equilateral triangles indicate snap rolls.
Hammerhead Turn
Humpty Bump

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